The recent explosive growth of the Internet and the fact that personal computers with multimedia capabilities are now a common-place have raised the interest in the use of web resources for music production and distribution. And one can expect that the change in the environment where music takes place is likely to change music itself. The Internet medium imposes some particular constraints to music production specially in two areas. The first one is related to the representation of musical material in the digital domain. Although one can conceive that almost any traditional type of music representation - from traditional scores to sound recording - could be easily translated to digital medium, the idiosyncratic characteristics of Internet require different and more efficient means of representation. The second area is related to temporal issues. As a temporal art, music is extremely sensitive to the timing constraints imposed be current Internet protocols. The analysis of music history will show how this language has adapted itself to the temporal issues related to different historical periods and how the temporal constraints imposed by Internet are demanding a new attitude towards musical time organization.
Arnold Schoenberg said once, "There is still much good music to be written in C Major" (quoted in Machlis, 1979: Ch. V, in fine). Dmitri Shostakovich's First String Quartet op. 49 (1938) seems to take the Viennese master at his word and give his opinion a valid support.
I'll attempt first an examination of the tonal system at work in music of Western tradition, and its capability of structuring a field of tension-release regulated by a homeostatic principle.
I'll discuss then the concept of "atonal" music as intended by Schönberg, and his rejection of adopting it for his own work, which he demanded to be considered as "tonal", although in a different manner than usually.
At last, I'll analyze the tonal structure of Shostakovich's First String Quartet in C major, trying to explain the way (quite diverging from Schönberg's case) this music can be still regarded as tonal, and its original use of an apparently traditional grammar.
For the past two decades, the dominant philosophical force in American music education has been the aesthetic based approach espoused by Bennet Reimer. Drawing on the work of Suzanne Langer, this school considers music a symbolic objectification of feeling, through which we can learn and grow as feeling human beings. Art, says Reimer, is to feeling as written documents are to thought: an outward symbol of internal experience. By studying and creating art we come to know our "feeling selves" better. This view has recently been challenged as narrow, romanticized, and nineteenth century Eurocentric. Music is instead a rich and diverse human activity that serves many social functions as well as the aesthetic. David Elliott, leading the challenge, has coined the term "musicing" to denote an emphasis on the practice of music in a cultural context. Elliott emphasizes contextual "music acts" (parole?) over a universal "musical aesthetic experience" (langue?). In their open debate over the direction of American music education, Reimer and Elliott parallel many of the positions and arguments found in Volosinov, Eco, and Halliday. In particular, this paper will demonstrate how Kress's study of children responding to and creating text might find its musical equivalent in the elementary music class.
Rhetorical models for the understanding of 18th-century music are becoming increasingly popular. The conventions of rhetoric were widely circulated in 18th-century theory and widely understood by Mozart's contemporaries (indeed, his father, Leopold, was intimately acquainted with the discipline). Effectively, rhetorical conventions acted as "sign systems" through which music was communicated. They provide us with a context for understanding Mozart's Fantasia in relation to the C minor Sonata, K. 457. A rhetorical examination of the Fantasia shows that its gestures are allied to a network of signs denoting a specifically introductory function, characterising it as a prelude to the Sonata rather than as a free-standing work in its own right.
This paper explains and argues that the development and interpretation of a diachronic approach to the various arts, particularly dramatic musical performance of the eighteenth century, is through an explication of historical rhetorical theory, associationistic psychology, and associated epistemological assumptions (primarily of Scholasticism, Th. Hobbes, R. Descartes, J. Locke, G. Leibniz, and The Third Earl of Shaftesbury). The emphasis is on England and G.F. Handel. The understanding of rhetorical theory is crucial, because it was so pervasive, and includes ideas of how art was made, where art comes from, how art is organized (and why), and the signs of the media by which art is presented. Intentionality is embodied in the works of art themselves, in the forms of signs. That means that art works specifically employ devices of music, literature, and painting, and dramatic musical performances make use of all the arts at once, through such things as gesture (rhetorical "actio"), blocking, literary devices in the librettos, musical conventions and figures, and the theatre itself. Audiences would have known or at least responded to the devices, conventions, and assumptions, and we should share at least some of them if we are to understand and appreciate eighteenth-century art. The epistemological assumptions are behind all the arts, and the psychological assumptions (primarily of associationistic psychology) determine the thrust of the presentations and the audience's understanding. Since human beings tend to think the way they believe they think, our understanding of eighteenth-century assumptions leads to our understanding of eighteenth-century works of art and their performance. The assumptions are fundamental, and are behind all other concerns (politics, social policies, business ethics, gender assumptions, territorial aggrandisement, etc.). The nature of the assumptions lead to representations embodied in the works of art and their presentations. Because of eighteenth-century assumptions and how they change, the art differs from earlier and later presentations. The relationship of the signs as they refer to the assumptions and the practices of the various arts through representation, diachronically considered, leads, therefore, to a holistic interpretation and appreciation of eighteenth-century dramatic musical works and their performances.
The study of the relationship between the text and the music in Duo para pato y canario ("Duet for a Duck and a Canary", 1931) by the Mexican composer Silvestre Revueltas (1899-1940) offers new insights into the poetic and emotive functions of music, namely that one function cannot be performed without the other for this medium to exist, since both have sound as their substance. In this piece, while the music provides a new layer of complexity to the metric structure of the poem, it also replicates its humorous attitude. Humor, though, takes the shape of irony, and the piece becomes a means of social critique, through which Revueltas subtly attacks the Western concert music tradition as well as, to a certain extent, what he perceived as the "indifferent", powerful classes of 1930s Mexican society.
Am Beispiel des litauischen Schaffens werden Verbindungen und Analogien im Gebiete der Poesie, Musik und Kunst analysiert. Es werden Fragen der Genesis von Werken, der strukturellen Verbindungen, der Schwierigkeiten beim Analysieren von Verbindungen zwischen den verschiedenen Kunstarten behandelt und Beispiele der zu analysierenden Werke vorgelegt.
In dieser Arbeit wird mit Hilfe vergleichender Methoden und des statistischen Wahrscheinlichkeitsverfahrens die Methodik zur Erforschung spezifischer Eigenschaften von Melodik und Harmonik dargelegt, die zur Analyse litauischer Musik angewandt wurde. Zur Erorschung der Melodik werden Methoden angewandt, deren Ziel ist, die Faktoren der Spezifik und Identität (unter Anwendung des Zuverlässigkeitskriterium x2, bestimmt durch eine Formel) zu bestimmen, und die Eigenschaften von Intervallen, Frequenzen melodischer Wendungen, Intensität des metrischen Funktionalismus aufzudecken. In der Analyse der Harmonik ist auf Forschungsmethoden hinzuweisen, die auf Gebiete wie Akkordsammlung, Akkordfrequenz und ihre binäre Verbindungen, Korrelation zwischen harmonischen und metrischen Funktionen, Harmonie der künstlerischen Skalenbildungen und Zwölftontechnik anwendbar sind. Beim Vergleich der Frequenzen von Musikelementen in der litauischen und in anderen europäischen Kulturen, bei Anwendung eines statistischen Wahrscheinlichkeitsverfahrens können idente Phänomena, Gemeinsamkeiten festgestellt und durch entsprechende Formeln ausgedrückt werden.
Zur Begründung von Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiedlichkeiten im Vergleichen zweier statistischen Gruppen kann das Kriterium x2 angewandt und die statistische Wahrscheinlichkeit von Unterschiedlichkeiten der Frequenzen eingeschätzt werden. Aufgrund der Untersuchungen wurden Schlußfolgerungen gezogen: Die in dieser Arbeit gebrauchte Methodik kann man nicht bei der Analyse litauischer Musik anwenden, sondern auch bei der Analyse der anderen nationalen musikalischen Kulturen oder der Harmonik und Melodik beliebiger Musik, weil durch Kombination eines statistischen Wahrscheinlichkeitsverfahrens und einer vergleichenden Forschungmethode die Faktoren der Gemeinsameit und die Funktionen der Unterschiedlichkeiten gezeigt und relativ klar ausgewiesen werden können.
In Urheberrecht und Ästhetik wurde zwischen 1820 und 1850 über den Zeichencharakter der Noten diskutiert. Um Musik in Analogie zur Literatur urheberrechtlich schützen zu können, mußten Noten als "Schrift" angesehen wreden. Dies verneinte noch 1844 ein sächsisches Gesetz, und gewährte der Musik nur den geringeren Schutz für Werke der bildenden Kunst. Die für das literarische Urheberrecht entwickelte Dreiteilung von Idee, individueller Gestalt dieser Idee und Materialisierung dieser Gestalt hat Adolph B. Marx in die Musikästhetik übertragen: zwischen Idee und Musikdruck steht die Form. Da für Marx "Form und Idee ineinander aufgehen" und die Form sich in der Partitur materialisiert, konnte auch die Idee in den Noten aufgefunden werden. Dagegen behandelte Schillings "Musikalische Semiotik" 1840 Noten als Zeichen nur für Töne, nicht aber für die "Ideen", die in der Aufführung mit den Tönen verklingen.
The Mexican Revolution and a complex cultural and ethnic make-up that resulted from four centuries of Spanish-Indian acculturation, provided the setting for Mexican composers in search of an artistic identity in 1930. A nostalgia for an extinct Precolumbian music, a fascination with the country's folkloric diversity as well as the artificial importation of European musical heritage constituted the three main coordinates within which artists could define their style.
In particular, Silvestre Revueltas devised a compositional structure that reflects and is reflected in the multiform cultural weaving of his surroundings, allowing a coherent and organized coexistence of seemingly opposed musical constituents. An elaborate layering of autonomous musical events, interconnected by way of collage techniques that were very advanced for his day, led to a syncretism that lies at the center of his stylistic specificity.
The purpose of this paper is to prove, through the comparative internal and contextual observation of a specific musical example, that the aesthetics of Revueltas would be incomplete if understood or described without resorting to semiotic analysis. Only when placing the score in the semiosphere prevalent in Revueltas's days will the poietic process unfold clearly before us.
The heart of Joachim Burmeister's treatise Musica Poetica (1606) is a detailed description of 'musical rhetorical figures'. Listed among them is what musicians have subsequently come to consider as quintessentially "formal": the fugue. His notion of 'ornaments of harmony and melody' as a compositional procedure distinct from singers' improvisatory ornamentation practices is best appreciated in light of his fundamental distinction between 'stylus humilus' (simple, lowly style) and more elaborate compositional styles. When placed in its proper historical context in the midst of a pre-Cartesian world view, Burmeister's stylus humilus turns out to be an epistemological category thinly disguised as a mere stylistic classification. What emerges is a rhetorical paradigm for music as a system in which the only artistically significant music-theoretic activity is the creation and recognition of patterns coming to life against the unmarked sonic background of stylus humilus.
The symbiotic interplay of the lowly style with compositional ornaments is an instantiation in the domain of music of an idea familiar from other domains of philosophical and scientific thought of that time: an Aristotelian substratum, itself devoid of all but the most elementary musical properties, cradling the forms of music - the figures of musical rhetoric.
Music, which European modernism had placed in the top position of the aesthetic hierarchy of values, became an integral part of the poetics of the Russian poetry at the turn of the 20th century. The leading aesthetician of Russian symbolism, the outstanding poet and prosaist Andrej Belyj expressed this fact in a number of essays and in his experimental juvenilia - rhythmized pieces of prose written according to the musical symphony principle (Symphonies 1-4, 1902-08). The representative of the "older" generation of Russian symbolism Konstantin Bal'mont discovered the existential principle of music as apart of Man's magical purgation from inherited cruelty (the poem The Birth of Music, 1917). The famous representative of Russian acmeism Anna Akhmatova found her inspiration in various musical genres, including the Estonian folklore, which she transformed into the shape of a modern ballad. The present interdisciplinary research has been based on the sign character of all the compared phenomena.
The subject of the lecture is conducting as typically known from classical symphonic practice. The question to be discussed is: In what respect is the conductors beat properly to be understood as "signing" within the framework of a sign language, and as such a proper object of semiotic analysis.
My approach to the topic is primarily phenomenological. It makes analytical comments on the task of the conductor; on the very nature of the cooperative and communicative framework embedding the conductor and the musicians, and hence on the constitutional conditions for conducting.
The conclusion is that in many important respects conducting is not a matter of signalling, and there is no such thing as a conductor's sign language. It will be outlined how the connection between music, musicians and conductor is based on analogies between music, corporeality and onto-temporality.
Berlioz conferred meaning upon instrumental music in much of his oeuvre. When these orchestral sections are present in vocal genres they form an integrated continuous part of the narrative. In Berlioz's writings one can hear explicitly and implicitly a line of thought that leads to an understanding of his musical language in a broad sense, which exceeds musical technicality and aesthetics. When Berlioz praises the new Romantic wave - by which he means Weber and Beethoven - he says that the notes are the means to higher values, not an end for themselves. In Berlioz's original way he found signs, communicable for individual compositions, that characterize the whole and the distinct character of the work. I shall thus demonstrate a unique technique of anticipation he used for the work his model was so influential for him: Goethe.
Jodeln ist keineswegs ein besonderes Phänomen des Alpenraumes, sondern auch in skandinavischen, osteuropäischen und afrikanischen Ländern verbreitet. Als textloses Kommunikationsmittel im Grenzbereich von Sprache und Musik bzw. Gesang ist das Jodeln, wie jedes andere kommunikative Zeichensystem auch, an spezifische soziale Kontextbedingungen geknüpft und unterliegt besonderen Regeln des Gebrauchs. Im Vordergrund meines Vortrags soll daher seine kommunikative Funktion und nicht seine musikästhetische Bedeutung stehen.
Dem Joden will ich mich im Anschluß an Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) nähern, den Gründer der Semiologie, dessen originären Nachlaß ich seit einigen Jahren in den Archiven intensiv analysiere. Denn in seinem Nachlaß findet sich nur ein Semiologiekonzept, das erheblich von den posthumen Darstellung im Cours de linguistique générale (1916) abweicht, sondern dort hat er überdies die Grundlagen zu einer semiologischen Phonetik sowie Fragmente zu einer Tonologie und zu einer Akustik hinterlassen, die zusammengenommen einen interessanten Zugang zum Phänomenbereich des Jodelns erlauben.