Abstracts D--H

Annette Davison (University of Sheffield):
"Up in Flames": Signs of Love, Control, and Collaboration in the Soundtrack to David Lynch's Wild at Heart

In this paper I argue that David Lynch's film Wild at Heart (1989) valorises musical performance, and active and bodily response to music above almost all other modes of expression. The film is primarily concerned with demonstrating how the passion and power of love can overcome even seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The power of the protagonists' love is expressed in visual, sonic, and musical signifiers, and also in the concept of 'music' in itself, as a means of escape. This valorisation of music reaches its culmination in the appropriation of conventions of the Hollywood musical, and the mode of spectatorship it encourages. As a result, the character of one of the principal protagonists can be considered to stand for the figure of the film's director, Lynch. Furthermore, the soundtrack as a whole can be considered to be a signifier, in material form, of the radical reconfiguration of Hollywood modes of production that Lynch's collaborative production techniques represent. Analysis of the combined elements of the soundtrack confirms this interpretation, which is exemplified by the high degree of integration between the film's dialogue, sound effects, and music.


Fulvio Delli Pizzi (Conservatory of Milan)
Functions and Sense within "Ad hoc" Systems

It is true, in a broad sense, that all musical pieces can be regarded as "ad hoc" systems, since it is likely that the features of each of them come from every time different compositional processes. It is more proper, nevertheless, to restrict that definition to the scores whose mechanisms are irreducible to previously well-known lexical and syntactical codes.

It would surely be false to affirm that most "ad hoc" systems completely ignore preformed codes; in fact it often happens that an "ad hoc" system rises from the action of destroying the function of a code and of including some of its specific features in a different context of meaning.

I will deal with the emergence of sense within contemporary pieces classifiable as "ad hoc" systems. Some of this work will be devoted to the analysis of my own piano piece Canone II dal »Waldes-Büchlein der neuen Musiken«.


Nicola Dibben (University of Sheffield)
Hearing Music's Social Content: Musical materials and signification

This paper is concerned with the mediation and reception of meaning in music. Drawing upon the Adornian notion of the socially constituted character of musical materials, I argue that musical materials have a history of use both in terms of their socio-historical associations (more commonly thought of as 'signification') and compositional (structural) function. The approach taken here suggests that it is the socio-historical character of musical material which constitutes music's social content. The findings of a listening study are reported which investigates the perception of musical materials in terms of these socially constituted meanings and functions and examines the extent to which differences amongst individual listeners influence the perception of a work's social content. The mediation and reception of music's social content are illustrated using two pieces of music drawn from contemporary art and popular music.


Jarmila Doubravová (Prague)
Music of the '30s in Experiments

This paper will give a review of important experiments, using two Czech priorities: the interpersonal hypothesis of music and the GUHA method. A representative choice of Czech music of that time was made, and then tested by four groups of respondents, namely mathematicians, psychologists and psychiatrists, international musicologists, and Czech students, as well as three experts. It was known that there is a special sensitivity among Czech respondents, concerning some phenomena of the '50s. The GUHA method made it possible to find out the correlations between interpersonal and personal characteristics. The competence of the respondent plays a decisive role in the entirety of interpersonal characteristics of perception.

Doubravová, J. (1998). Dialog a imaginace [Dialogue and imagination. An interpersonal diagnosis of/by art]. Praha: Edition Supraphon


Michael Eigtved (University of Copenhagen)
Miss Saigon, Shakuhachis and Synthesisers: Studies in a disintegrated mega-musical

The paper investigates the musical theatre as a place for articulation of ethnicity, values and ideals using the "east-west" romance of the musical Miss Saigon as example. The paper attempts to trace two elements in the music. First, the use of the American city sound as a symbol of American values, and the reflection of the Hollywood sound in the young Vietnamese girl Kim's imagination, as opposed to the sound of Saigon and of a rural, Vietnamese background. The point is to show how the contrast between the two urban contexts thus is used to establish the musical backdrop of the show. Second, this will be used to show how what the British popular music semiologist Phillip Tagg has labelled a "genre synecdoche" works in the theatre as a musical guide, which determines the point of view, and the inherent values of the characters on stage. This leads to concluding remarks on the development of the musical genre towards a disintegrated musical, and to reflections on how the east-west opposition is used to symbolise specific emotional problems in western popular culture.


Martina Elicker (University of Graz)
Images of American Society in Pop, Rock, and Folk Music of the Past 30 Years

This paper consists of two parts: The first section deals with principle features of and changes within American society as reflected in American popular music from the 1960s to the present. It focuses on the singer-songwriter movement, which by the 1960s had become a primary force in the Civil Rights Movement, on the one hand, and a mirror of the changes taking place in society, on the other. The second part is devoted to a detailed analysis of one particular song. The main aim of this case study is to point out the most relevant features concerning the transmission of ideological ideas and concepts on both the lyrical and the musical planes. The discussion is approached from a semiotic angle, drawing on models and methods of analysis put forth by such semioticians/musicologists as Peirce, Barthes, Nattiez, McClary, and Tagg. Both sections of the paper ultimately serve to emphasize the immediate and inevitable connection between semiotic analysis and cultural studies.


Monika Fink (Universität Innsbruck)
Der Tango - Getanzter Spiegel gesellschaftlicher Wirklichkeit

In kaum einem musikalischen Gattungsbereich manifestiert sich der Zusammenhang zwischen Kunst und Gesellschaft so eng wie im Tanz. Die verschiedenen Tänze, ihre Entwicklung sowie ihre Ausformungen sind immer als Indikatoren der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit zu sehen. Diese Verflechtung von gesellschaftlichem Umfeld und musikalisch-tänzerischer Ausformung soll anhand des Tango untersucht werden. Gegenstand des Referates sind die verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien dieses multikulturellen Tanzes auf seinem Weg aus der musikalischen Subkultur zum Gesellschaftstanz europäischer sowie argentinischer Prägung. Jede einzelne Phase des Tango mit seiner jeweiligen formalen Gestalt, seiner musikalischen und textlichen - bezogen auf das Tango-Lied - Aussage sowie sein sozialer Gehalt stellen jeweils eine Wiederspiegelung der sozialen Umgebung dar.


José Enrique Finol (Maracaibo)
Socio-Semiotic of Music: African Drums in a Venezuelan Fiesta

The active presence of African drums in some expressions of Latin American music has contributed enormously to identifying groups and cultural allegiances. In Venezuela, where the introduction of slavery began in the 17th century, the arrival of black men from Africa was aimed at alleviating the burden of the Indians in the new Spanish colonies, where the Indians had to carry out heavy work for which they were not prepared. Those black men carried with them their traditions and, consequently, they rebuilt in America their drums. One of the most well-known celebrations in Venezuelan "negro" culture is San Benito, a festivity practised in some regions of this country, where a black saint is worshipped during a day-long fiesta, and where official Catholic rituals are confronted with syncretic popular religion rituals. San Benito is not only an annual celebration (December 27), but it is also a school where young people are prepared in a well established hierarchy where every member has its name and responsibilities. In this research, our main purpose is to look at drums not only as a musical instrument but particularly as a central sign of a Venezuelan "negro" culture. In that sense, drums play a role by which African Venezuelan people distinguish themselves from traditional "criollo" culture where drums play a less important role. According to our hypothesis, in San Benito's festivities African Venezuelan drums have to be looked at in three main semiotic directions. First of all, drums are related to "nature" by their origin, second, drums are "bodies" by their volume, and third, drums are "collective voices" by their functions among the community that plays it.


Linda Fisher (University of Windsor, Ont. & Budapest)
Opera and the Musical Semiotics of Gender

Within the framework of the question of the "sociality" of music and musical representation and signification, my paper takes up the question of the musical construction of gender. This issue, increasingly addressed in the work of feminist music critics, concerns what Susan McClary terms the "musical semiotics of gender: a set of conventions for constructing 'masculinity' or 'femininity' in music." That is, music, perhaps more compellingly than other art forms, mediates cultural significations - in this case gender construction and organization - not only by reflecting prevailing socio-cultural models, but also by actively participating in their construction, narrative, and dissemination.

My focus is one of the more salient examples of gendered musical narrative, opera. I examine operatic representations of gender within the problematic of the "undoing of women", as Catherine Clément has put it, arguing that while opera may feature many "undone" women, there are also corresponding representations of strong, willful, and even triumphant women. Granted, woman as non-victim may not always be an entirely sympathetic figure, and perhaps even pitiable, but the point is that - Clément's important insights aside - the situation of gender and opera is much more complex, and ambiguous. As scholars have argued, in many ways opera manifests the interrogation and subversion of traditional gender roles. As such, the gender semiotics of opera manifest not only particular gender construals, but more fundamentally the overlapping ambiguities of gender and gender representation in culture and cultural forms.


Jiri Fukac (Masaryk Universität, Brno)
"Österreichische" (An-)Zeichen in der tschechischen Musik

Die Musik der böhmischen Länder wurde seit dem Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts als "merkmalhaltige" Abart der deutschen Musikproduktion verstanden. Zwar hat sich dann im Vorzeichen der herantretenden Romantik ein Prozeß der "Slavisierung" des nationaltschechischen Musikschaffens durchgesetzt, die führenden Repräsentanten der tschechischen Nationalmusik (Smetana, Dvorák u.a.) gliederten sich jedoch oft in die "allösterreichischen" musikkulturellen Kontexte ein und betonten absichtlich ihren ideellen Zusammenhang mit der deutschsprachigen Musikszene. Die Züge dieses Trends sind auch in den weiteren Epochen zu spüren. Konkrete idiomatische Vorgänge, die in dem so orientierten Musikschaffen vorhanden sind, sind als Zeichen bzw. metazeichenartige Kompositionsverfahren anzusehen, die das Bild "Österreich" vermitteln und in den kognitiven Reflexionen der Musik sowohl affirmativ als auch ablehnend gedeutet und gewertet werden.


Andreas Gebesmair (MEDIACULT, Wien)
Elektronische Musik (miß-)verstehen. Hörstrategien und soziale Strategien in der Musikrezeption am Beispiel des "steirischen herbstes"

Gefallensurteile über Musik werden in der Rezeptionsforschung und Musikpädagogik häufig als Folge des "Verstehens" oder "Nicht-Verstehens" von Musik betrachtet. Eine Musik, die aufgrund ihrer Komplexität den ungeschulten Hörer überfordert, wird von diesen als unangenehm empfunden. Nur jene Rezipienten, die über den jeweiligen Code verfügen (oder in der Sprache der Kognitionstheorie: über die geeigneten Repräsentationen oder Schemata), sind imstande, die Musik adäquat zu erfassen und infolgedessen auch zu genießen.

Darüberhinaus erfolgte allerdings der Nachweis, daß Rezipienten im Umgang mit Musik bestimmte Strategien verfolgen. Musik gefällt in erster Linie nicht deshalb, weil sie adäquat erfaßt wird, sondern weil sie bestimmte Funktionen erfüllt. Den Vorlieben für bestimmte Musik liegen sowohl Hörstrategien ("Hörweisen" - Klaus-Ernst Behne) als auch soziale Strategien (Pierre Bourdieu) zugrunde. Hörstrategien dienen dazu, einen bestimmten psychophysischen Zustand herzustellen. (In Anlehnung an Gerhard Schulze könnte man auch von "Genuß" sprechen.) In sozialen Strategien hingegen wird Musik als Ressource genutzt, um soziale Identifikation mit einer Gruppe herzustellen und sich gegenüber anderen abzugrenzen (Distinktion). Am Beispiel der Darbietung von elektronischer Musik im Rahmen des Avantgarde-Festivals "steirischer herbst" soll gezeigt werden, daß mit Musik, die in bezug auf ihre "objektive" Struktur große Ähnlichkeit aufweist, völlig unterschiedliche Strategien verfolgt werden. Elektronische Musik im Kontext "bürgerlicher Musikdarbietung" (Grazer Congress) bedient die Genußform der "Kontemplation" und eine soziale Identifikation mit hochkulturellen Milieus. Elektronische Musik im Kontext eines Raves hingegen wird "motorisch" oder "kompensatorisch" (in der Chill-Out-Area auch "kontemplativ") rezipiert und dient der Identifikation mit einer Jugendsubkultur.


Karl Gfesser (Sprachzentrum der Universität Stuttgart)
"Bebop is bebop" (Dizzy) - "So what!?" (Miles) - "Doughnut" (Ornette): Der Objektbezug der Musik

Musikalische Semiosis geht wie jede Semiosis über die drei Zeichenbezüge Mittel-, Objekt- und Interpretantenbezug. Im Mittelbezug bietet sich ein vielfältiges Repertoire materiell-energetischer Qualizeichen (1.1); es ist die Qualität des Tons, wie die Luft zum Schwingen gebracht wird, durch Blas-, Streich-, Zupf- und Schlaginstrumente, durch die Stimme, systemisch taxiert in Legizeichen (1.3), performiert in Sinzeichen (1.2). Die elementaren Legizeichen sind superiert zu Skalen, Rhythmen, Takten, Tonarten, Tonfolgen wie Akkorden, Kadenzen, weiter zu Melodien, Motiven, Themen, zu Sonate, Capriccio, Toccata, Symphonie mit dicentischem (3.2), zur Fuge mit vielleicht argumentischem (3.3), zu Free-Jazz mit rhematischem (3.1) Interpretantenbezug. Im Objektbezug klingt zunächst nichts weiter an als das, was ertönt, sei es andante, adagio, allegro, vivace, appassionato; es sind die Tonfolgen, die auf sich selbst verweisen, auf musikalische Sachverhalte, aber auch auf außermusikalische, iconisch-lautmalerisch (2.1) etwa auf Impressionen "An der schönen blauen Donau" (Strauß), oder "A Love Supreme" (Coltrane), zusätzlich verbal-indexikalisch angezeigt (2.2), verbal-symbolisch benannt (2.3), Tonfolgen, die auch Tanz, Choreographie evozieren. Einige musikalische Zitate sollen der Erörterung des musikalischen Objektbezugs Anhalt geben, begonnen mit Dizzy Gillespie und Miles Davis, beantwortet von Ornette Coleman, auf ihre Weise.


Christian Glanz (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
Wiener Operette und österreichische Identität

Im Zentrum steht die Frage, wie die Wiener Operette mit grundsätzlichen Aspekten der österreichischen Identität umgeht, insbesonders im Hinblick auf die in der Spätphase der Donaumonarchie proklamierte "Gesamtstaatsidee". Als erfolgreiches Genre der Unterhaltungskultur prägt die Operette nicht nur ihr zeitgenössisches Umfeld, sondern fand in wichtigen Medien der Moderne (vor allem im Film) strukturelle Fortsetzungen. Damit verbunden ist auch die Problematisierung des kritischen Potentials bzw. Anspruchs der Operette Wiener Prägung. Diesen Fragen wird einerseits in exemplarischen Werken, andererseits im Hinblick auf rezeptionsgeschichtliche Aspekte nachgegangen, wobei bewußt gegensätzliche Ansätze zur Diskussion gestellt werden.


Niksa Gligo (Academy of Music / University of Zagreb)
Social and/or Educational Aspects of Schaeffer's musique concrète (on the utopian fate of music as project)

The specific notion of "concreteness" (as opposed to "abstractness") in Pierre Schaeffer's musique concrète requires revaluation of the whole notion of music. If we want to discuss the consequences provoked by the idea of musique concrète, the mere "concreteness" of sound material does not suffice. For Schaeffer the concreteness of the sound represents just the sound heard from which one has to abstract the musical values. Therefore, both "abstract" and "concrete" are for him "two isotopes of reality". The main goal of Schaeffer's solfège (expérimental) concret, with typology, morphology, characterology, analysis and synthesis as its "disciplines", is the educational preparation for the "sound objects" to become "musical objects", because the aspect of concreteness cannot be left at the level of its mere "naturalness". Solfège des objet musicaux is therefore the most important project in Schaeffer's theory, which should compensate the (non-existent) regulative role of a scale system in traditional ("abstract") music, but - of course - far away from any normative unambiguousness which is impossible to imagine for the music the theoretical concepts of which strive to further original development of musical experience, of listening and of musical praxis in general. Schaeffer's musique concrète is therefore an utopian concept the reality of which is highly dependent on elaboration through appropriate educational methods that should represent the conditional part of Schaeffer's theory as project.


Ryszard Daniel Golianek (Poznan)
How Posterior Commentaries Influence the Sense of Music: The case of Les Préludes

Extra-musical inspiration in programme music of Franz Liszt can be treated as an element which enables the audience to understand the programmatic content of the work. Such an attitude was revealed many times by the composer who compared the representational possibilities of music with those of poetry. Thus Liszt introduced the literary commentaries into the scores of his symphonic poems. However, in some cases he resigned from this idea (Hamlet, Hungaria, Festklänge) and, in the case of Les Préludes, he provided the score with the literary programme (from Lamartine's Meditations) only after having completed the work. Such a procedure provokes some questions. Do really Les Préludes follow extra-musical ideas? How to verify the author's intention? And, last but not least, is it possible to bring analytical proofs for the well-known fact of the posterior inclusion of the programme?

The system of musical characters and symbols introduced by Constantin Floros seems appropriate for these aims. Taking into account the categories examined by Floros, one is able to distinguish in the music of Les Préludes all the ideas and contents brought by Lamartine's text. There is only one important difference between the narration of Lamartine and Liszt: the represented ideas appear in different order.


Harai Golomb (Faculty of Arts, Tel-Aviv University)
Chekhov's Musicianship and Mozart's Dramaturgy: Interart Aspects in Their Works for the Stage

W.A. Mozart was one of the most strictly-musical operatic composers, whereas Chekhov was one of the most literary-minded among writers and playwrights. They were not trained in each other's art.

Yet, music plays prominent functions in Chekhov's plays. It can serve not only as "pure" sound and as an autonomous theme; it can also be a source of structural inspiration, for organising thematic material that can have nothing to do with music. The paper is concerned only with the latter and demonstrates the use of purely-musical features like tonality, harmony, melody etc., for enhancing the operas' dramatic aspects.

Yet, in the deepest sense and in the final analysis, the predominantly musical nature of Mozart's operas and the predominantly literary/dramatic nature of Chekhov's plays are enhanced by the use of techniques borrowed from the other art or inspired by it.


Harai Golomb (Faculty of Arts, Tel-Aviv University)
Re-Structuring Semantic Hierarchies in Words Set to Music: Examples from Mozart, Schubert and Bach

Setting verbal texts to music can alter their semantic content and structure, sometimes even radically. Such processes can occur on various micro and macro scales. The present paper focuses on cases of micro dimensions: single words and small phrases.

One of the most formidable challenges for composers of expression-motivated words-related works is the setting to music of verbal utterances describable as 'unmusicable' - i.e., devoid of emotive properties that can be affected by music. Examples from The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni demonstrate how Mozart meets this challenge through the different, but uniquely-musical, ways in which his music resonates with the seemingly 'unmusicable' concepts of affirmation and negation (through the words 'yes' and 'no'). Different yet similar is the case of the two ways in which Schubert (in "der Wegweiser") sets the same text and basically the same vocal line to tonally and harmonically opposed progressions in the piano part, thereby bringing out different semantic potentials in the words. In yet another example, from Cosi fan tutte, a typically 'musicable' word - 'desire' - is interpreted in two totally different ways by the music. And finally, in Bach's b minor mass, the same phrase is set to two diametrically opposed types of music, thereby creating different hierarchies of semantic significance between the various words in this phrase.

Theoretically, these examples illustrate some of the similarities and differences of music and language as sign systems which expose each other's peculiarities through simultaneous interaction.


Andreas Goppold (University of Ulm)
Music, Number, and the Structures of Time Or: The Infinite Return of the Eternally Unequal

Nietzsche remarked about the fundamental error underlying the set-theoretical construction of numbers: there exist no such things that could be called equal among each other (to be counted), moreover, there is no such thing as "a thing". Similarity and equality are the achievements of eons of evolution, equipping each of us with a well-honed set of neuronal structure extraction subsystems, or pattern matchers, which give us the comforting impression that there is a set of constant parameters which we can extract from the cosmos around us, separating our orderly world from the brute chaos. In philosophy, this translates into the Parmenidean/Platonic notion of Being, or Substance. Nietzsche's remark and his Dionysian philosophy reach into a far more difficult realm: the patterns of time and of change. Such patterns are far more difficult to treat formally, as is exemplified by the slow succession of mathematical concepts for treating change: the mathematics for first order change is the Newton/Leibniz calculus, which only appeared 2000 years after the Aristotelian logic. Second order change: the changes of change can only now be treated formally in cybernetics. Bateson calls this: "the difference that makes a difference". All the while, the musical traditions of humanity have cultivated and amplified the higher order forms of change, mainly in their performed art and their know-how. The non-written traditions of music, like ethnomusic, Free Jazz, and Indian Raga, preserve the dynamic core of the music tradition of humanity, of "the differences that make a difference".


Dinda L. Gorlée (The Hague & University of Innsbruck)
Intersemiosis: Words and Music in Opera

Opera is a form of multimedial communication, a synchronization of different media of artistic expression, with a dual emphasis on music and drama. Operatic scholarship has voiced different views on the fusion of verbal and musical discourse, both extremes being logocentrism and musicocentrism. The interlingual procedure of the verbal subtext is a complex enterprise subject to multiple pragmatic constraints. By focusing on its intricacies in some detail (the anatomy of the human vocal apparatus, high/low pitches, stress, prosodic and intonational patterns, rhyme, etc., together determining the singability of the libretto) I hope that the discussion here will shed light on the manifold problems involved in syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of opera translation. The theoretical remarks shall be exemplified in an analysis of selected passages from Das Rheingold, by Richard Wagner.


Rúta Gostautiené (Lithuanian Music Academy, Vilnius)
Consecration of Meanings and New Music Festivals in Lithuania

In the 90s Lithuania, as other East European countries, faces radical political and social changes. However, despite the popular belief in a "synonymous" character of social and cultural processes, the last decade indicates that stylistic peculiarities of Lithuanian music have hardly changed in comparison with the alterations that have occurred in music functioning and its reception within society. At the same time it is evident that we witness a very interesting process of re-interpretation and re-contextualization of meanings, orientations and values in music culture. In my opinion, it is the new music festival institution (or field, according to Pierre Bourdieu) that plays the most important role in the generation and consecration of meanings. In my paper I will discuss this topic from both - sociological and semiotical - perspectives revealing how pre-existing cultural values and practices are re-interpreted in new social and cultural situations.


Yelena Grigorieva (University of Tartu)
Boundaries in/of Music

This contribution represents a part of more general study concerning the problem of boundary in different kinds of art. The main task of this study is to distinguish semiotically between the time-and-space continuum of a piece of art and time-and-space of its recipient. In this connection I consider mental and physical boundaries (or frames) of artifacts as specific mechanisms intended for transcendency (or transgression) of a recipient. Boundaries between art and non-art are movable and this mobility depends on historical and cultural collective and individual mentality. Nevertheless they can not be trespassed in principle. That follows from the essential nature of transcendency as cultural phenomenon.

Still music due to its specific physical qualities allows deeper penetration into the inner space of a recipient. The human being in his/her perceptual function can be schematically represented as a set of perceptual coverings. Different kinds of art exploit different levels of them producing boundaries marking and restricting artificial time-and-space. In the process of art consumption physical regularities are translated into intellectual ones. The more definitely the boundary between material and illusive time-and-space is marked, the more intellectual (conventional, cultural, conscious) effort of a recipient is needed. Music and architecture, closely tied with each other by cultural tradition, are considered within this problematic as a model of semiotic utopia.


Krzysztof Guczalski (Universität Krakau)
Über den nichtsprachlichen Charakter der Musik / On the Non-linguistic Character of Music

Im achten Kapitel des Buches Philosophie auf neuem Wege mit dem Titel "Über die Bedeutung in der Musik" argumentiert Suzanne Langer gegen die Auffassung, daß Musik als Sprache in irgendeinem nahezu wörtlichen Sinne zu verstehen ist. Mit der Haltung Langers grundsätzlich übereinstimmend möchte ich zuerst zeigen, daß ihre scheinbar überzeugenden Argumente nicht schlüssig sind. Eines dieser Argumente ist z.B., daß es nicht möglich sei, ein Vokabular von emotionalen Bedeutungen der Musik zu formulieren. Neben der Beobachtung, daß wiederum die Begründung dieser Behauptung nicht konsistent ist, kann man auch darauf hinweisen, daß z.B. die Leistung Deryck Cookes - der in seinem Buch Die Sprache der Musik eben ein solches Vokabular für die westliche klassische Musik in gewissem Sinne formuliert hat - etwas Gegenteiliges zu Langers Behauptung zu beweisen scheint.

Um überzeugende Argumente für die im wesentlichen richtige Position Langers zu finden, muß man eine detaillierte Analyse der Funktion eines Vokabulars in einem semantischen System durchführen. Diese Analyse wird mit Hilfe einiger Unterscheidungen und Ideen durchgeführt, die mit jenen aus Nelson Goodmans Buch Sprachen der Kunst verwandt sind. Obwohl - ähnlich wie im Falle Langers - die Unterscheidungen Goodmans von notationalen und nicht-notationalen Systemen (wobei die Sprachen zur ersten Gruppe gehören), die auf den Begriffen der Dichte und der endlichen Differenzierung basieren, intuitiv richtig und einleuchtend zu sein scheinen, ist ihre formale Entwicklung und ihre Anwendung auf die Musik voll von Fehlern und Inkonsistenzen. Um also Goodmans Ideen benutzen zu können, muß man sie zuerst neuformulieren. Ihre Anwendung auf die Musik erlaubt zu verstehen, daß die Rolle eines potentiellen Vokabulars der Musik - auch wenn ein solches zu formulieren wäre - sich von der Rolle eines Vokabulars in einer Sprache wesentlich unterscheidet und daß der Musik eine Eigenschaft von grundsätzlicher Bedeutung fehlt, die jeder Sprache zu eigen ist.


Matthieu Guillot (University Paris VIII) &
Vita Gruodyté (Lithuanian Academy of Music, Vilnius)
Semiotics of Rituals: From the "Pagan" Ritual (B. Kutavicius) to the "Urban" Ritual (Urban Sax)

The goal of this paper is to investigate the specific situations as such and the meaning of musical rituals of our time on two distinct examples, taken on the one hand from the famous Lithuanian composer Bronius Kutavicius (born 1932), and on the other hand from the French group Urban Sax, which is well-known in the field of performance art.

The first model of ritual is bound to the past: it is "reconstructed" or re-invented by B. Kutavicius whose works are largely based indeed on the reconstruction of ancient folk rituals and pagan ceremonies (cf. his cycle of oratorios: Pantheistic Oratorio, From the Jatvingian Stone, The Last Pagan Rites, The Tree of the World, The Magic Circle of Sanskrit). This music using the archaic static "ritual" time is introduced for revealing folklore or even pre-folklore, and the pantheistic spirit of this music (cf. the original nature of the very old Lithuanian song called "sutartines").

After several experiences of the contemporary music in the sixties (Stockhausen, Xenakis), the second one tends to create a contemporary ritual which keeps the basic elements of ritual but also adds modern elements, including visual and spatial dimensions (which take place in an "Environmental art" or an "environmental Art", according to Stephen Bann). The ritual space of Urban Sax is based upon three levels: choice of the physical space, ritual gesture (dance movements), sounding material (trance).

Moles, Abraham & Rohmer, Elisabeth. Psychologie de l'espace, Tournai,:Casterman 1972
-- Labyrinthes du vécu. L'espace: matière d'actions. Paris: Librairie des Méridiens 1982
-- Micropsychologie et vie quotidienne. Paris: Denoël/Gonthier, coll. Médiations, 1976
Popper, Frank. L'Art cinétique. Paris: Gauthier-Villars,1970 (2e éd. aug.)
-- Art, action, participation, Paris: Klincksieck-esthétique 1980


Katherine Hagedorn (Pomona College, Claremont, CA)
Improvisation and Embodiment in the Performance of Cuban Santeria

My presentation focuses on improvisation and "embodiment" in the music of the polytheistic Afro-Cuban religion popularly known as Santeria. In Santeria, musical performance is essential to communicating with deities, known as Orichas. Each Oricha "owns" particular songs, drum rhythms, and dances, and it is the combination of the Oricha's rhythms (played on the sacred Bata drums) and praise songs that calls it to earth, so that it may speak and dance through the body of a possessed devotee.

Yet these praise songs and Bata rhythms are subject to improvisation and variation by whomever performs them, which has guided my research for the past three years. Do the melodic contours of a song and occasional repetitions of a drum pattern somehow "embody" a particular deity? How many improvisational liberties can one take before the songs and rhythms are no longer recognizable to the Orichas, and thus can no longer evoke them? I will consider the songs and Bata rhythms of one or two primary Orichas (such as Elegua, trickster Oricha of the crossroads; and Yemaya, Oricha of the sea) in order to explore how musicians and other religious practitioners of Santeria create and modify rhythm, melody, and movement as a means of "embodying" otherwise abstract images of the divine.


Simone Heilgendorff (Hochschule für Musik "Hanns Eisler" Berlin)
Song Books von John Cage als Bedeutungsträger symbolischer Interaktionsformen: Alfred Lorenzers Theorie "szenischen Verstehens" als grundlegende Erweiterung musikalischer und kultureller Analyse

Besonders im Bereich zeitgenössischer Musik und multimedialer Kunst entziehen sich viele "Werke" und Aufführungen den konventionellen Bewertungsmaßstäben, was sie häufig in ein ästhetisches Aus manövriert. Dennoch zeitigen sie (wie Kunst generell) unbestritten bei vielen Menschen starke Wirkung, die zu begreifen schwierig ist. Diese Dichotomie aufzulösen kann mithilfe eines Systems gelingen, das gerade die nichtfixierbaren, prozessualen Aspekte kreativen und rezeptiven Umgehens mit kulturellen Materialien thematisiert. Von hier geht die Theorie szenischen Verstehens aus, die vom der Frankfurter Schule nahestehende Psychoanalytiker und Sozialforscher Alfred Lorenzer (geb. 1922) seit Anfang der sechziger Jahre (mit einigen Mitarbeitern) entwickelt wird. Lorenzer rehabilitiert die große Bedeutung von Kunst im menschlichen Zusammenleben entgegen vielen anderen Ansätzen, z.B. der Theorie der Avantgarde P. Bürgers. Auf dieser Basis ist es möglich, Musik - auch "klassische Musik" - in bezug auf ihre Entstehungs- und Wirkungsprozesse hin zu untersuchen und ihr Potential als lebensnotwendigen Raum menschlichen (imaginären) "Probehandelns" mittels symbolischer Interaktionsformen detailliert zu erfassen. Wie musikalische Analyse dies konkret umsetzen kann, wird am Beispiel ausgewählter Solos aus den Song Books (1970) von John Cage gezeigt.


Ursula Hemetek (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
Was ist "österreichisch" an der "heimischen" Musik von ethnischen Minderheiten in Österreich?

Ethnische Minderheiten in Österreich haben generell eine lebendige traditionelle Musikszene aufzuweisen. Es ist zu unterscheiden zwischen den "autochthonen" ethnischen Minderheiten und den Zuwandererkulturen. Stark "österreichisch" geprägt sind vor allem die autochthonen Minderheitenmusiken. Diese musikalischen Äußerungen sind einerseits an die regionale Tradition des Lebensraumes angelehnt (z.B. Burgenland, Kärnten), also "heimisch", andererseits sind sie Ausdruck einer ethnischen Identität, die sich von der umgebenden Mehrheit unterscheidet. Ich möchte der Frage nachgehen, inwieweit diese Stile im Spannungsfeld zwischen nationaler Vereinnahmung und Ausgrenzung als "österreichische" Musik anzusehen sind.


Ernest W.B. Hess-Lüttich (Universität Bern)
Medienvariationen: Musik-Zeichen (Benjamin Britten's Death in Venice)

Am Beispiel von Bearbeitungen eines Stoffes in verschiedenen Medien (z.B. Thomas Manns Tod in Venedig als Film, Oper und Ballett) soll das Verhältnis von Literatur und anderen Medien genauer beleuchtet werden. Vor allem gilt das Interesse der Fortentwicklung des begrifflich-methodischen Instrumentariums zur Analyse von in verschiedenen Medien oder auch multimedial codierten Texten. Dabei soll zum einen geprüft werden, inwieweit die Semiotik als methodisches Scharnier gelten (oder fruchtbar gemacht werden) kann, um das sich verschiedene Ansätze zur Analyse von intermedialen Transferprozessen drehen könnten. Zum anderen ist den medienspezifischen Veränderungen genaueres Augenmerk zu widmen, denen Texte beim Übergang von einem Medium ins andere unterliegen. Der Schwerpunkt soll dabei in diesem musiksemiotischen Zusammenhang auf der Analyse der Oper Death in Venice von Benjamin Britten vor dem Hintergrund ihres intermedialen Bezugs liegen.


Drina Hocevar (Venezuela & University of Helsinki)
Euphony or Musicality of Poetry

According to A.J. Greimas the poetic expression is situated half-way between the gargles that organize themselves into the sounds of language, and the ordered series of sonorities that conform musical language. This characteristic he denominates musicality of poetry. In Theory of Literature, René Wellek and Austin Warren identify musicality with melody of verse, and they say that the term "musicality" should be dropped as misleading. The reason they give is that intonation in language only vaguely resembles musical melody - which they describe as having fixed pitches and definite intervals - whereas pitch in intonation is wavering and quickly changing. In the realm of literary studies the term that comes closer to the concept of musicality is euphony. According to the Oxford Dictionary euphony is "pleasantness of sound, esp. of a word or phrase..." Wellek & A. Warren consider the term euphony also insufficient since it does not include cacophony, used by the poet when he wants to express harsh sound-effects. It is interesting to notice that both concepts of cacophony and euphony are included in what the Russian Formalists have called orchestration, to stress the importance of sound effects.

In order to give a satisfactory account of the semiosis of poetic discourse, we consider necessary to further develop a model of analysis that takes into account the musicality of poetry - including here rhythm and metre as part of what is meant by "musicality" - which plays an essential role in the understanding of poetic meaning.


Harald Huber (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
Girls & Boys. Semiologische Analyse populärer Musik anhand eines Songs von Prince

Stücke populärer Musik werden, nach einem längeren Prozeß musikalisch-literarischer Erfindung, im Tonstudio so gemixt, daß sie auf die ästhetischen Kriterien desjenigen Stilfeldes, das ihren Kontext bildet, auf konventionelle bis innovative Weise Bezug nehmen. Anhand eines Songs von Prince sollen 5 Schritte einer musikspezifischen Herangehensweise an Struktur und Bedeutung populärer Musik gezeigt werden:

1) Sequenzanalyse
Musik als Zeitkunst, als zeitlich strukturierte Erzählweise, erfordert in besonderer Weise eine Analyse ihrer narrativen Sequenzen. Dabei kommt der intertextuellen Durchdringung von musikalischer und verbaler (und visueller) Ebene ein wesentlicher Stellenwert zu.

2) Partituranalyse
Afroamerikanische Musik basiert in der Regel auf Wiederholungsmodellen. Eine Partitur zeigt die einzelnen Spuren eines Wiederholungsmodells in Form von Noten im Querschnitt.

3) Dekonstruktion des Mix
Die Gesamtstruktur des Musikstücks wird als Balkendiagramm, in der Art des "arrange mode" von Computer-Musikprogrammen, dargestellt. Dadurch kann die im Tonstudio geleistete Arbeit übersichtlich nachvollzogen werden.

4) Dekonstruktion des polysemischen Textes
Auf der durch die Schritte 1-3 gewonnenen strukturanalytischen Basis werden nun Bedeutungsmöglichkeiten von Elementen der Musik ("sound images") und Interpretationsmöglichkeiten der Song-Lyrik diskutiert.

5) Kontextanalyse
Dabei geht es um den Entstehungs- und Verwertungszusammenhang des Musikstücks und die Analyse seiner gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen: Girls & Boys wurde 1986 im Zusammenhang mit der Filmproduktion Under The Cherry Moon veröffentlicht. Prince tritt im Film als "Christopher Tracy", als Hochstapler und Liebhaber einer Tochter aus gutem Haus in Nizza an der Côte d'Azur auf.

Das Stilfeld SOUL, dem die Produktionen von Prince in individuell-innovativer Weise zuzurechnen sind, ist in besonderer Weise durch die Widersprüche der amerikanischen Gesellschaft hinsichtlich der Lage der Afroamerikaner und deren Auf- und Abstiegsdynamik gekennzeichnet.


Carl Humphries (University of Cracow)
The Social Semiotics and Phenomenology of Contemporary Music Making and its Effect on Musical Language

This paper explores the nature of the relationship between the practice of contemporary music making as an embodied, socially situated and coded form of behaviour, and the conceptualisation of intra-musical properties (the articulation and use of a "musical language") in musicological, analytic and creative discourse. The intention is to explore specific ways in which the nature of immediate physical involvement and contextually mediated social behaviour may influence not only conceptions of how "musical language" operates, but also its formal, congeneric qualities such as are employed compositionally and explicated through analysis. The emphasis is on a pragmatics of musical understanding, drawing on Peircean semiotic theory and its application to music (Lidov, Hatten, et al.), phenomenologically inspired accounts of musical experience (Clifton, Burrows, and Stubley), work on the cognitive contribution of bodily metaphor in perceptions of musical structure (Brower), perceptual accounts of heard experience based on the ecological psychology of Gibson (Gaver, Windsor), and the theories of Bakhtin and Wittgenstein.

The paper will focus on the following issues: the relationship of composer, performer, and listener considered from the point of view of creativity and socio-physical involvement and in relation to issues of textuality and musicological hermeneutics; the role of "rules" and "codes" in situated musical behaviour; the relationship between bodily and formal narrative in contemporary music making; the effect of western notation on the treatment of emergent non-linear perceptual properties such as timbre, texture, and oral-bodily gesture and the implications of the latter for notions of structure in contemporary music.

It is concluded that the undermining of the normative status of the classical concert by both alternative listening media and other cultural practices is engendering a shift in the social and phenomenological character of contemporary musical experience, and that, in addition to being consistent with developments in philosophically and psychologically motivated theories of music, this has concrete consequences for the terms within which contemporary attempts to formulate a musical language should be made.

Abstracts A--C | Abstracts I--L | Abstracts M--O | Abstracts P--S | Abstracts T--Z